Friday, 24 February 2012

Tamil Units of Measurements (அளவீட்டு தமிழ் அலகுகள்)


     Measurements in ancient Tamil land were of seven kinds. They were number counts, balance weights, fluid volumes, grain volumes, length, time and the likeness. Ancient tamils were used only mind-calculation for their daily necessaries. Their life is mixed up with calculation for everything. They have enough tables of units for all kind such as weighing, counting, measuring, etc.,. which is similar to the Indus Valley Civilization. They have fractional tables which includes divisor of 2, 5, 8 & etc.,.

The Tamil peoples are using still their basic unit of distance measurement called muzham to measure the length of jasmine garland. Ancient tamils also used muzhakkuchi (scale/tape) which is the basic measuring instrument to build a temple or other building. One of the temple which used muzhakkuchi is Tanjore Big Temple from Tamil Nadu, India.

Units of time in ancient Tamil history

  • 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi) = குழி (குற்றுழி)= 6.66 millisecond-the time taken by the Pleiades stars(aRumin) to glitter once.
  • 12(base 8) or 10 kuzhigaL= 1 miy= 66.6666 millisecond-the time taken by the young human eyes to flap once.
  • 2 kaNNimaigaL (கண்ணிமைகள்)= 1 kainodi (கைநொடி)= 0.125 second
  • 2 kainodi= 1 maatthirai (மாத்திரை) = 0.25 second
  • 6(base 8) or 6 miygaL= 1 siRRuzhi(nodi) சிற்றுழி (நொடி)= 0.40 second-the time taken for a bubble (created by blowing air through a bamboo tube into a vessel 1 saaN high, full of water) to travel a distance of one saaN (சாண்).
  • 2 maatthiraigaL= 1 kuru (குறு) = 0.50 second
  • 2(base 8) or 2 nodigaL= 1 vinaadi வினாடி = 0.80 second-the time for the adult human heart to beat once
  • 212 nodigaL= 2 kuru= 1 uyir உயிர் = 1 second
  • 5 nodigaL= 2 uyir= 1 saNigam சாணிகம் = 1/2 aNu அணு = 2 seconds
  • 12(base 8) or 10 nodigaL= 1 aNu= 4 seconds
  • 6(base 8) or 6 aNukkaL= 12 saNigam= 1 thuLi துளி = 1 naazhigai-vinaadi நாழிகை வினாடி = 24 seconds
  • 12(base 8) or 10 thuLigaL= 1 kaNam கணம் = 4 minutes
  • 6(base 8) or 6 kaNangaL= 1 naazhigai= 24 minutes
  • 12(base 8) or 10 naazhigaigaL= 4 saamam சாமம் = 1 siRupozhuthu சிறுபொழுது = 240 minutes= 4 hours
  • 6(base 8) or 6 siRu-pozhuthugaL= 1 naaL நாள் (1 day)= 24 hours
  • 7 naaTkaL= 1 kizhamai கிழமை (1 week)
  • 15 naaTkaL= 1 azhuvam அழுவம் (1 fortnight )
  • 29.5 naaTkaL= 1 thingaL திங்கள் (1 lunar month)
  • 2 thingaL= 1 perum-pozhuthu பெரும்பொழுது (1 season)
  • 6 perum-pozhuthugaL= 1 AaNdu ஆண்டு (1 year)
  • 64 aaNdugaL= 1 vattam வட்டம் (1 cycle)
  • 4096(=8^4) AaNdugaL= 1 Oozhi ஊழி (1 epoch)


Area Measurement

  • 1 Marakkal vaedaipadu (seeds required for planting rice) = 8 cents
  • 12.5 Marakkal vaedaipadu = 100 cents (one acre)

Area calculation and Measurement Chart
  • 1 hectare = 2 acre 47 cent
  • 1 hectare = 10,000 sq.m.
  • 1 acre = 0.405 hectare
  • 1 acre = 4046.82 sq.m.
  • 1 acre = 43,560 sq.ft.
  • 1 acre = 100 cent = 4840 sq.gejam
  • 1 cent = 435.6 sq.ft.
  • 1 cent = 40.5 sq.m
  • 1 ground = 222.96 sq.m. = 5.5 cent
  • 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.

  • 1 kuzhi = 10x10 ft. (although some say that 1 kuzhi is approximately equal to 12x12 ft. i.e., 144 sq.ft.)
  • 1 Mā = 100 kuzhi = 10000 sq.ft.
  • 1 Kāni = 4 Mā = 40000 sq.ft.
  • 1 kāni = 92 cents = 0.92 acre
  • 1 kāni = 400 kuzhi = 40000 sq.ft.
  • 1 acre = 436 kuzhi
  • 1 Veļi = 7 kāni = 6.43 acres = 2.6 hectares
  • 1 dismil =2.5 cent

  • 1 furlong = 660 feet = 220 kejam
  • 1 kilometre = 5 furlong
  • 1 link / chain = 0.66 foot = 7.92 inch
  • 1 kejam = 9.075 sq.ft.
  • 1 mile = 8 furlong
  • 1 ares = 1076 sq.ft. = 2.47 cent
  • 1 chain = 22 kejam
  • 1 furlong = 10 chain
  • 1 kejam = 0.9144 metre
  • 1 township = 36 sq.mile
  • 1 sq.mile = 640 acre
  • 1 cent = 48 kejam


Units of ancient trade


Balance weights


Gold weights

  • 4 nel edai= 1 kunRimaNi
  • 2 kunRimaNi= 1 manjaadi
  • 1 manjaadi= 1 paNavedai
  • 5 paNavedai= 1 kazhanju
  • 8 paNavedai= 1 varaaganedai
  • 20 paNavedai= 4 kazhanju = 1 kaqhsu
  • 80 paNavedai= 16 kazhanju= 4 kaqhsu= 1 palam.
  • 1.5 Kazhanji = 8 gram or one pown


Goods weights

  • 32 kunRimaNi= 1 varaaganedai
  • 10 varaaganedai= 1 palam
  • 40 palam= 1 veesai
  • 1000 palam =1 kaa
  • 6 veesai= 1 thulaam
  • 8 veesai= 1 maNangu
  • 20 maNangu= 1 paaram.


Grain volume

  • 1 kuNam= smallest unit of volume
  • 9 kuNam= 1 mummi
  • 11 mummi= 1 aNu
  • 7 aNu=1 immi
  • 7 immi= 1 uminel
  • 1 sittigai= 7 uminel
  • 360 nel= 1 sevidu
  • 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
  • 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku
  • 2 uzhakku= 1 uri
  • 2 uri= 1 padi
  • 8 padi= 1 marakkaal(kuRuNi)
  • 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
  • 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
  • 5 marakkaal= 1 paRai
  • 80 paRai= 1 karisai
  • 96 padi= 1 kalam
  • 120 padi= 1 pothi(mootai)
  • 21 marakkal = 1 Kottai
  • 22 maakaani = 100 gms
padi, = 1800 avarai pods = 12,800 miLagu seeds = 14,400 nel grains = 14,800 payaRu grains = 38,000 arisi grains = 115,200 sesame seeds


Fluid volume

  • 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
  • 2 mahani = 1 aazhakku (arai kal padi)
  • 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku (Kal padi)
  • 2 uzhakku= 1 uri (Arai padi)
  • 2 uri= 1 padi
  • 8 padi= 1 marakkaal
  • 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
  • 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
  • 21 Marakkal = 1 Kottai


Length

  • 10 koaN= 1 nuNNaNu
  • 10 nuNNaNU= 1 aNu(atom)
  • 8 aNu= 1 kathirtthugaL
  • 8 kathirtthugaL= 1 thusumbu
  • 8 thusumbu= 1 mayirnuni
  • 8 mayirnuni= 1 nuNmaNal
  • 8 nuNmaNal= 1 siRu-kadugu
  • 8 siRu-kadugu= 1 eL
  • 8 eL= 1 nel
  • 8 nel= 1 viral= 8^8 aNu(atom)= 1.9444 centimetre
  • 12 viral= 1 saaN= 100 immi= 23.3333 centimetre
  • saaN= 1 muzham= 46.6666 centimetre
  • 2 muzham= 1 kajam
  • 4 muzham= 1 paagam
  • 625 paagam= 1 kaadham= 5000 saaN= 1166.66 metres= 1.167 kilometre


Likeness (Saartthal)

Likeness has attributes of tone, sound, colour and shape for comparison of a given substance with a known standard.


Whole numbers


  • 1= onRu
  • 10= patthu
  • 100= nooRu
  • 1000= aayiram
  • 10,000= pathaayiram
  • 100,000= nooRaayiram
  • 1000,000= meiyiram
  • 10^9= thoLLunn
  • 10^12= eegiyam
  • 10^15= neLai
  • 10^18= iLanji
  • 10^20= veLLam
  • 10^21= aambal
Tamil texts elaborate the following version:
  • 1 = ONDRU -one
  • 10 = PATHU -ten
  • 100 = NOORU-hundred
  • 1,000 = AAYIRAM-thousand
  • 10,000 = PATHAAYIRAM -ten thousand
  • 100,000 = LATCHAM-hundred thousand
  • 1,000,000 = PATHU LATCHAM - one million
  • 10,000,000 = KODI-ten million
  • 100,000,000 = ARPUTHAM-hundred million
  • 1,000,000,000 = NIGARPUTHAM- one billion
  • 10,000,000,000 = KUMBAM-ten billion
  • 100,000,000,000 = KANAM-hundred billion
  • 1,000,000,000,000 = KARPAM-one trillion
  • 10,000,000,000,000 = NIKARPAM -ten trillion
  • 100,000,000,000,000 = PATHUMAM -hundred trillion
  • 1,000,000,000,000,000 = SANGGAM -quadrillion
  • 10,000,000,000,000,000 = VELLAM -ten quadrillion
  • 100,000,000,000,000,000 = ANNIYAM -
  • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 = ARTTAM -
  • 10,000,000,000,000,000,000 = PARARTTAM -
  • 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 = POORIYAM -
  • 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MUKKODI -
  • 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MAHAYUGAM -


Fractions

  • 1= onRu
  • 3/4= mukkaal
  • 1/2= arai
  • 1/4= kaal
  • 1/5= naalumaa
  • 3/16= moonRu veesam
  • 3/20= moonRumaa
  • 1/8= araikkaal
  • 1/10= irumaa
  • 1/16= maakaaNi (veesam)
  • 1/20= orumaa
  • 3/64= mukkaal veesam
  • 3/80= mukkaaN
  • 1/32= araiveesam
  • 1/40 araimaa
  • 1/64= kaal veesam
  • 1/80= kaaNi
  • 3/320= araikkaaNi munthiri
  • 1/160= araikkaaNi
  • 1/320= munthiri
  • 1/102,400= keezh munthiri
  • 1/2,150,400= immi
  • 1/23,654,400= mummi
  • 1/165,580,800= aNu
  • 1/1,490,227,200= kuNam
  • 1/7,451,136,000= pantham
  • 1/44,706,816,000= paagam
  • 1/312,947,712,000= vintham
  • 1/5,320,111,104,000= naagavintham
  • 1/74,481,555,456,000= sinthai
  • 1/1,489,631,109,120,000= kathirmunai
  • 1/59,585,244,364,800,000= kuralvaLaippidi
  • 1/3,575,114,661,888,000,000= veLLam
  • 1/357,511,466,188,800,000,000= nuNNmaNl
  • 1/2,323,824,530,227,200,000,000= thaertthugaL

Currency

  • 1 pal (wooden discs/sea shellots)= (approximately) 0.9 grain
  • 8 (or 10 base 8) paRkaL =1 senkaaNi (copper/bronze) = 7.2 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 10 base 10 paRkal =9 grains)
  • 1/4 senkaaNi =1 kaalkaaNi (copper) =1.8 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 2.25 grains)
  • 64 (or 100 base 8) paRkaL = 1 KaaNap-pon a.k.a. Kaasu panam(gold) = 57.6 grains
  • 1 Roman dinarium was traded on par with 2 KaaNappon plus 1 SenkaaNi(=124 grains).
  • 18 Ana = 2.5 Rupee, 16 Ana = 1 Rupee, 1 Ana = 3 Thuttu, 1/4 Ana = 3/4 (mukkal) thuttu

94 comments:

Anonymous said...

megabyte க்கு தமிழில் என்ன.

Anonymous said...

HOW MUCH IS 1 KANI LAND EXACTLY? In some websites in see 92 cents & in some 132 cents. Which is correct?

Rajeswari jewellery said...

பயனுள்ள தகவல் நன்றி www.rajeswarijewellery.com www.tiruchendurclassifieds.in

Poopathi R said...

1 kani = 3 kuli
1 kuli = 44 cent
1 kani = 3*44 = 132 cents

Gokul Prasad said...

Superb sir

Gokul Prasad said...

If possible visit kumbakonamsafari.blogspot.sg

arun prasath said...

ALL DETAILS ARE AVAILABLE IN WIKIPEDIA SIR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_units_of_measurement

Unknown said...

thanks

Unknown said...

Very useful notes thank lot.....

vimal raj said...

ஒரு சென்ட் நிலம் எத்தனை சதுர அடி?

Anonymous said...

i padi = ? aahaku

Anonymous said...

excellent work.

DOUBLE ENDED KNIFE said...

Excellent. Hats off to post this Tamizh traditional calculations.

Kedge india said...

Arumai . . .. .

ttd said...

50 kuzhi ethana cent

RAJA SIMMAN said...

TAMIZHANIN NUNNARIVAI THERINDHU KOLLUNGAL

Marik Lee said...

16.7cent varum...

smk said...

could u tell me the source of this article other than wikipedia?

Unknown said...

Good information



Unknown said...

56 ares ethanai kuzhi

punjapatchi@jothidam said...

VERY USEFULL NOTES TO EVERYBODY,MANY KIND OF THANKS TO YOU, SIR.

Ramachandran S said...

435.6sq ft bro

prabha karan said...

Very informative Thanks a lot

Unknown said...

பயனுள்ள தகவல் நன்றி

prathap raman said...

போத்தல் என்ன அளவை ஐயா

Kowsalya Sk said...

1acre = 302 kuzhi (or) 1acre = 75.625 kuzhi, which one is correct

Sathis Kumar said...

super...................

Lakshmi Narayanan S said...

1 acre = 436 kuzhi
1 kuzhi = 10x10 sq.ft

RKmusiri said...

அய்யா ஒரு கால் அடியின் அளவு வேண்டும்.

Dinesh Kumar said...

Nice good post

Unknown said...

435.6sq ft

suriya moorthy said...

Oru sathura adina enna bro

suriya moorthy said...

Oru sathura adina enna bro

Abirami Ganesh said...

Beautiful measurements in tamil.....thank you so much mam
Abi

Md Jeavul Hug.N said...

Hi Please Tell me 1 kilo How Maney square fit ?

Infant Christopher said...

Some websites they are mentioned 1 kuzhi= 44 cent but your website mentioned just 1 kuzhi = 144 sqf which one is correct

Unknown said...

281 1/2 kuzhi = ma ??

ausma said...

Verukadi alavu endral enna???

Manohar said...

1 angulam na evlo

Ajay Raj said...

Nice Posting...

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fan said...

1 gana adi ewwalavu

Jaya Prakash said...

USEFUL

Unknown said...

Very thanks

proskhan said...

மர கன அடி எப்படி?

ma infash said...

ஒரு பாகம் எத்தனை அடி?

PROSPERTY REALTOR said...

Nice Posting...

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Unknown said...

1uzhavu mazhai depicts how much rainfall

Kumariah Selvabhopathy said...

Oru padi ethanai kilo

Kumariah Selvabhopathy said...

Oru padi ethanai kilo

Ajay Raj said...

Useful topic posted

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selvaraj said...

4.5 ma how many kuzhi

Unknown said...

0.2.8 kani, how to acre or cents plz explain me, anybody

Sabari Nathan said...

sirappu miga sirappu

Muthu Kumar said...

Oru palam yethanai gram and oru kazhanji yethanai gram

jayaraj said...

useful, informative post

v VINOTH KUMAR said...

5 1/4 kejam ethana adi

Ashok Kumar said...

Tamil Annai Vazhga!

N vignesh said...

Indha tharavugal yengirundhu pera pattathu....athaaram irukiratha ?

Unknown said...

Mukala moonu visam how many square feet

balamurugan veeranan said...

Angulam means

balamurugan veeranan said...

Angulam means

gomathi sridharan said...

Oru kilo karupu milagu ethanai PADI irukkum? Please very urgent

Dhigil pandi Memes said...

KILOGRAM KU TAMIL WORD SOLLUNGA FRIENDS

Unknown said...

435.6

karthi kn said...

Nandry.... Mikka naandri.

Unknown said...

1 sathuram ethanai sqr mtr?

Unknown said...

1 manai how much sq.ft

Unknown said...

Thanks

Unknown said...

Oru sangili ethana cent

Unknown said...

1200 sq ft

Unknown said...

THANK YOU




Rose Kumar said...

Hello g 12adi 3 1/2 ADI Ethan's square feet varum

Vivekananthan R said...

I shared your blog in a Quora question and answer. Thanks a lot. https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-Tamil-words-for-nimidam-vaaram-jothidam-and-muhurtham/answer/Vivek-Anandan-106?__nsrc__=4&__snid3__=3111162898

Sakthi E said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Unknown said...

One thachu Mulam how much Rft

Unknown said...

One thachu Mulam how much Rft

Unknown said...

1cent uku ethuna koal)

Anonymous said...

10x10 Feet = 1 Sathuram

Unknown said...

Very much useful, since I am 68 years old,I could have recalled.

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Unknown said...

I ve one doubt.Can u tell me one palam is equal to how many grams?

Rajadurai said...

Please make corrections with below
1 kaani = 400 Kuzhi
1 acre = 100 cent = 300 Kuzhi
1 cent = 3 Kuzhi

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