Measurements in ancient Tamil land were of seven kinds. They were number counts, balance weights, fluid volumes, grain volumes, length, time and the likeness. Ancient tamils were used only mind-calculation for their daily necessaries. Their life is mixed up with calculation for everything. They have enough tables of units for all kind such as weighing, counting, measuring, etc.,. which is similar to the Indus Valley Civilization. They have fractional tables which includes divisor of 2, 5, 8 & etc.,.

The
Tamil peoples are using still their basic unit of distance measurement called
muzham to measure the length of jasmine garland. Ancient tamils also used
muzhakkuchi (scale/tape) which is the basic measuring instrument to build a
temple or other building. One of the temple which used muzhakkuchi is Tanjore
Big Temple from Tamil Nadu, India.

## Units of time in ancient Tamil history

- 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi) = குழி (குற்றுழி)= 6.66 millisecond-the time taken by the Pleiades stars(
*aRumin*) to glitter once. - 12(base 8) or 10 kuzhigaL= 1 miy= 66.6666 millisecond-the time taken by the young human eyes to flap once.
- 2 kaNNimaigaL (கண்ணிமைகள்)= 1 kainodi (கைநொடி)= 0.125 second
- 2 kainodi= 1 maatthirai (மாத்திரை) = 0.25 second
- 6(base 8) or 6 miygaL= 1 siRRuzhi(nodi) சிற்றுழி (நொடி)= 0.40 second-the time taken for a bubble (created by blowing air through a bamboo tube into a vessel 1 saaN high, full of water) to travel a distance of one saaN (சாண்).
- 2 maatthiraigaL= 1 kuru (குறு) = 0.50 second
- 2(base 8) or 2 nodigaL= 1 vinaadi வினாடி = 0.80 second-the time for the adult human heart to beat once
- 2
^{1}⁄_{2}nodigaL= 2 kuru= 1 uyir உயிர் = 1 second - 5 nodigaL= 2 uyir= 1 saNigam சாணிகம் = 1/2 aNu அணு = 2 seconds
- 12(base 8) or 10 nodigaL= 1 aNu= 4 seconds
- 6(base 8) or 6 aNukkaL= 12 saNigam= 1 thuLi துளி = 1 naazhigai-vinaadi நாழிகை வினாடி = 24 seconds
- 12(base 8) or 10 thuLigaL= 1 kaNam கணம் = 4 minutes
- 6(base 8) or 6 kaNangaL= 1 naazhigai= 24 minutes
- 12(base 8) or 10 naazhigaigaL= 4 saamam சாமம் = 1 siRupozhuthu சிறுபொழுது = 240 minutes= 4 hours
- 6(base 8) or 6 siRu-pozhuthugaL= 1 naaL நாள் (1 day)= 24 hours
- 7 naaTkaL= 1 kizhamai கிழமை (1 week)
- 15 naaTkaL= 1 azhuvam அழுவம் (1 fortnight )
- 29.5 naaTkaL= 1 thingaL திங்கள் (1 lunar month)
- 2 thingaL= 1 perum-pozhuthu பெரும்பொழுது (1 season)
- 6 perum-pozhuthugaL= 1 AaNdu ஆண்டு (1 year)
- 64 aaNdugaL= 1 vattam வட்டம் (1 cycle)
- 4096(=8^4) AaNdugaL= 1 Oozhi ஊழி (1 epoch)

##

Area Measurement

- 1 Marakkal vaedaipadu (seeds required for planting rice) = 8 cents
- 12.5 Marakkal vaedaipadu = 100 cents (one acre)

Area calculation and Measurement Chart

- 1 hectare = 2 acre 47 cent
- 1 hectare = 10,000 sq.m.
- 1 acre = 0.405 hectare
- 1 acre = 4046.82 sq.m.
- 1 acre = 43,560 sq.ft.
- 1 acre = 100 cent = 4840 sq.gejam
- 1 cent = 435.6 sq.ft.
- 1 cent = 40.5 sq.m
- 1 ground = 222.96 sq.m. = 5.5 cent
- 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.

- 1 kuzhi = 10x10 ft. (although some say that 1 kuzhi is approximately equal to 12x12 ft. i.e., 144 sq.ft.)
- 1 Mā = 100 kuzhi = 10000 sq.ft.
- 1 Kāni = 4 Mā = 40000 sq.ft.
- 1 kāni = 92 cents = 0.92 acre
- 1 kāni = 400 kuzhi = 40000 sq.ft.
- 1 acre = 436 kuzhi
- 1 Veļi = 7 kāni = 6.43 acres = 2.6 hectares
- 1 dismil =2.5 cent

- 1 furlong = 660 feet = 220 kejam
- 1 kilometre = 5 furlong
- 1 link / chain = 0.66 foot = 7.92 inch
- 1 kejam = 9.075 sq.ft.
- 1 mile = 8 furlong
- 1 ares = 1076 sq.ft. = 2.47 cent
- 1 chain = 22 kejam
- 1 furlong = 10 chain
- 1 kejam = 0.9144 metre
- 1 township = 36 sq.mile
- 1 sq.mile = 640 acre
- 1 cent = 48 kejam

##

Units of ancient trade

###

Balance weights

####

Gold weights

- 4 nel edai= 1 kunRimaNi
- 2 kunRimaNi= 1 manjaadi
- 1 manjaadi= 1 paNavedai
- 5 paNavedai= 1 kazhanju
- 8 paNavedai= 1 varaaganedai
- 20 paNavedai= 4 kazhanju = 1 kaqhsu
- 80 paNavedai= 16 kazhanju= 4 kaqhsu= 1 palam.
- 1.5 Kazhanji = 8 gram or one pown

####

Goods weights

- 32 kunRimaNi= 1 varaaganedai
- 10 varaaganedai= 1 palam
- 40 palam= 1 veesai
- 1000 palam =1 kaa
- 6 veesai= 1 thulaam
- 8 veesai= 1 maNangu
- 20 maNangu= 1 paaram.

###

Grain volume

- 1 kuNam= smallest unit of volume
- 9 kuNam= 1 mummi
- 11 mummi= 1 aNu
- 7 aNu=1 immi
- 7 immi= 1 uminel
- 1 sittigai= 7 uminel
- 360 nel= 1 sevidu
- 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
- 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku
- 2 uzhakku= 1 uri
- 2 uri= 1 padi
- 8 padi= 1 marakkaal(kuRuNi)
- 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
- 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
- 5 marakkaal= 1 paRai
- 80 paRai= 1 karisai
- 96 padi= 1 kalam
- 120 padi= 1 pothi(mootai)
- 21 marakkal = 1 Kottai
- 22 maakaani = 100 gms

1

*padi*, = 1800*avarai*pods = 12,800*miLagu*seeds = 14,400*nel*grains = 14,800*payaRu*grains = 38,000*arisi*grains = 115,200*sesame*seeds###

Fluid volume

- 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
- 2 mahani = 1 aazhakku (arai kal padi)
- 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku (Kal padi)
- 2 uzhakku= 1 uri (Arai padi)
- 2 uri= 1 padi
- 8 padi= 1 marakkaal
- 2 marakkaal(kuRuNi)= 1 padhakku
- 2 padhakku= 1 thooNi
- 21 Marakkal = 1 Kottai

###

Length

- 10 koaN= 1 nuNNaNu
- 10 nuNNaNU= 1 aNu(
*atom*) - 8 aNu= 1 kathirtthugaL
- 8 kathirtthugaL= 1 thusumbu
- 8 thusumbu= 1 mayirnuni
- 8 mayirnuni= 1 nuNmaNal
- 8 nuNmaNal= 1 siRu-kadugu
- 8 siRu-kadugu= 1 eL
- 8 eL= 1 nel
- 8 nel= 1 viral= 8^8 aNu(
*atom*)= 1.9444 centimetre - 12 viral= 1 saaN= 100 immi= 23.3333 centimetre
- 2 saaN= 1 muzham= 46.6666 centimetre
- 2 muzham= 1 kajam
- 4 muzham= 1 paagam
- 625 paagam= 1 kaadham= 5000 saaN= 1166.66 metres= 1.167 kilometre

##

Likeness (*Saartthal*)

Likeness has attributes of tone, sound, colour and shape for comparison of a given substance with a known standard.

##

Whole numbers

- 1= onRu
- 10= patthu
- 100= nooRu
- 1000= aayiram
- 10,000= pathaayiram
- 100,000= nooRaayiram
- 1000,000= meiyiram
- 10^9= thoLLunn
- 10^12= eegiyam
- 10^15= neLai
- 10^18= iLanji
- 10^20= veLLam
- 10^21= aambal

Tamil texts elaborate the following version:

- 1 = ONDRU -one
- 10 = PATHU -ten
- 100 = NOORU-hundred
- 1,000 = AAYIRAM-thousand
- 10,000 = PATHAAYIRAM -ten thousand
- 100,000 = LATCHAM-hundred thousand
- 1,000,000 = PATHU LATCHAM - one million
- 10,000,000 = KODI-ten million
- 100,000,000 = ARPUTHAM-hundred million
- 1,000,000,000 = NIGARPUTHAM- one billion
- 10,000,000,000 = KUMBAM-ten billion
- 100,000,000,000 = KANAM-hundred billion
- 1,000,000,000,000 = KARPAM-one trillion
- 10,000,000,000,000 = NIKARPAM -ten trillion
- 100,000,000,000,000 = PATHUMAM -hundred trillion
- 1,000,000,000,000,000 = SANGGAM -quadrillion
- 10,000,000,000,000,000 = VELLAM -ten quadrillion
- 100,000,000,000,000,000 = ANNIYAM -
- 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 = ARTTAM -
- 10,000,000,000,000,000,000 = PARARTTAM -
- 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 = POORIYAM -
- 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MUKKODI -
- 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MAHAYUGAM -

##

Fractions

- 1= onRu
- 3/4= mukkaal
- 1/2= arai
- 1/4= kaal
- 1/5= naalumaa
- 3/16= moonRu veesam
- 3/20= moonRumaa
- 1/8= araikkaal
- 1/10= irumaa
- 1/16= maakaaNi (veesam)
- 1/20= orumaa
- 3/64= mukkaal veesam
- 3/80= mukkaaN
- 1/32= araiveesam
- 1/40 araimaa
- 1/64= kaal veesam
- 1/80= kaaNi
- 3/320= araikkaaNi munthiri
- 1/160= araikkaaNi
- 1/320= munthiri
- 1/102,400= keezh munthiri
- 1/2,150,400= immi
- 1/23,654,400= mummi
- 1/165,580,800= aNu
- 1/1,490,227,200= kuNam
- 1/7,451,136,000= pantham
- 1/44,706,816,000= paagam
- 1/312,947,712,000= vintham
- 1/5,320,111,104,000= naagavintham
- 1/74,481,555,456,000= sinthai
- 1/1,489,631,109,120,000= kathirmunai
- 1/59,585,244,364,800,000= kuralvaLaippidi
- 1/3,575,114,661,888,000,000= veLLam
- 1/357,511,466,188,800,000,000= nuNNmaNl
- 1/2,323,824,530,227,200,000,000= thaertthugaL

## Currency

- 1 pal (wooden discs/sea shellots)= (
*approximately*) 0.9 grain - 8 (or 10 base 8) paRkaL =1 senkaaNi (copper/bronze) = 7.2 grains(
*misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 10 base 10 paRkal =9 grains)* - 1/4 senkaaNi =1 kaalkaaNi (copper) =1.8 grains(
*misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 2.25 grains*) - 64 (or 100 base 8) paRkaL = 1 KaaNap-pon
*a.k.a.*Kaasu panam(gold) = 57.6 grains - 1 Roman dinarium was traded on par with 2 KaaNappon plus 1 SenkaaNi(=124 grains).
- 18 Ana = 2.5 Rupee, 16 Ana = 1 Rupee, 1 Ana = 3 Thuttu, 1/4 Ana = 3/4 (mukkal) thuttu

## 104 comments:

megabyte க்கு தமிழில் என்ன.

HOW MUCH IS 1 KANI LAND EXACTLY? In some websites in see 92 cents & in some 132 cents. Which is correct?

பயனுள்ள தகவல் நன்றி www.rajeswarijewellery.com www.tiruchendurclassifieds.in

1 kani = 3 kuli

1 kuli = 44 cent

1 kani = 3*44 = 132 cents

Superb sir

If possible visit kumbakonamsafari.blogspot.sg

ALL DETAILS ARE AVAILABLE IN WIKIPEDIA SIR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_units_of_measurement

thanks

Very useful notes thank lot.....

ஒரு சென்ட் நிலம் எத்தனை சதுர அடி?

i padi = ? aahaku

excellent work.

Excellent. Hats off to post this Tamizh traditional calculations.

Arumai . . .. .

50 kuzhi ethana cent

TAMIZHANIN NUNNARIVAI THERINDHU KOLLUNGAL

16.7cent varum...

could u tell me the source of this article other than wikipedia?

Good information

56 ares ethanai kuzhi

VERY USEFULL NOTES TO EVERYBODY,MANY KIND OF THANKS TO YOU, SIR.

435.6sq ft bro

Very informative Thanks a lot

பயனுள்ள தகவல் நன்றி

போத்தல் என்ன அளவை ஐயா

1acre = 302 kuzhi (or) 1acre = 75.625 kuzhi, which one is correct

super...................

1 acre = 436 kuzhi

1 kuzhi = 10x10 sq.ft

அய்யா ஒரு கால் அடியின் அளவு வேண்டும்.

Nice good post

435.6sq ft

Oru sathura adina enna bro

Oru sathura adina enna bro

Beautiful measurements in tamil.....thank you so much mam

Abi

Hi Please Tell me 1 kilo How Maney square fit ?

Some websites they are mentioned 1 kuzhi= 44 cent but your website mentioned just 1 kuzhi = 144 sqf which one is correct

281 1/2 kuzhi = ma ??

Verukadi alavu endral enna???

1 angulam na evlo

Nice Posting...

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1 gana adi ewwalavu

USEFUL

Very thanks

மர கன அடி எப்படி?

ஒரு பாகம் எத்தனை அடி?

Nice Posting...

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1uzhavu mazhai depicts how much rainfall

Oru padi ethanai kilo

Oru padi ethanai kilo

Useful topic posted

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4.5 ma how many kuzhi

0.2.8 kani, how to acre or cents plz explain me, anybody

sirappu miga sirappu

Oru palam yethanai gram and oru kazhanji yethanai gram

useful, informative post

5 1/4 kejam ethana adi

Tamil Annai Vazhga!

Indha tharavugal yengirundhu pera pattathu....athaaram irukiratha ?

Mukala moonu visam how many square feet

Angulam means

Angulam means

Oru kilo karupu milagu ethanai PADI irukkum? Please very urgent

KILOGRAM KU TAMIL WORD SOLLUNGA FRIENDS

435.6

Nandry.... Mikka naandri.

1 sathuram ethanai sqr mtr?

1 manai how much sq.ft

Thanks

Oru sangili ethana cent

1200 sq ft

THANK YOU

Hello g 12adi 3 1/2 ADI Ethan's square feet varum

I shared your blog in a Quora question and answer. Thanks a lot. https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-Tamil-words-for-nimidam-vaaram-jothidam-and-muhurtham/answer/Vivek-Anandan-106?__nsrc__=4&__snid3__=3111162898

One thachu Mulam how much Rft

One thachu Mulam how much Rft

1cent uku ethuna koal)

10x10 Feet = 1 Sathuram

Very much useful, since I am 68 years old,I could have recalled.

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I ve one doubt.Can u tell me one palam is equal to how many grams?

Please make corrections with below

1 kaani = 400 Kuzhi

1 acre = 100 cent = 300 Kuzhi

1 cent = 3 Kuzhi

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சதுர அடி என்றல் ~ Sq feet...

ஒரு சதுர அடி ~ 435.6 sq.f....

Oru allaku yevalavu

Oru allaku yendral yethanai gram

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